Nationalists in power

By Florian Embren

The rise of nationalism in that if a country or region depends on the level of drive people, their maturity and ability to develop independently. Without such a foundation in society there will be no national movement, no major party or leader. In this sense, the example of Belgium, is very significant. If you look at the composition of the Parliament, it contains powerful position of Flemish nationalists who want to separate and Francophone nationalists hopeless, despite the proximity to France, where densely rooted nationalism, including in the face of "National Front" Dynasty Le Pen.


In the case of the Flemish we deal with nationalism tends to gaining statehood. This nationalism was the term "Risorgimento» (il risorgimento - revival), by association with the period in Italian history, when there was a struggle for the political unification of Italy. While the Flemish struggle for secession from Belgium, Francophones want to preserve the unity of the state, that if they are sufficient of drive, had lead to the movement of integral nationalism, which works to the centralization of power, the role of the state in which national interests are placed above all else. However, this did not happen, and it is not at all that the separatists more PASSIONARITY by nature ... Recall the popular success of the Hungarian far-right party "Jobbik", which not only was in favor of an aggressive nationalist policies in the country, but also on the side of the active "expansionist "foreign policy of Hungary. First of all, it concerns the aspirations of Hungarians associations around the world, as well as promoting Turanism. This idea is the consolidation led by Turkey Turkic people (to whom "Jobbik" rank as Hungarians) on the basis of ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity. The party has a "eastern project," in which Hungarian nationalists are two geopolitical center - Russia and Turkey.


In Belgium, the ethnic conflict is confrontation niderlandogovoryaschih Flemish and the French-speaking Walloons, which appeared originally on linguistic grounds. When Belgium became independent in 1830, the only official language was French, but by 1963, the Flemish nationalists seeking to make amendments to the Constitution of bilingualism. But this conflict is not limited to: a time when the land became richer Flemish Walloon and Flemish population when the population rose sharply in Belgium, Flemish nationalism has become more broad form. Also supported separatist unique dual administrative division of Belgium: the cultural communities (Flemish, Walloon and German) and economic regions (Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels). Each region and each language community has its own parliament and government, but later joined the Flemish parliament and the government and the Flemish Region Niderlandskoyazychnogo community.

Today in Belgium there are two large Flemish nationalist parties that are represented not only in the regional parliament, but also at the federal level. According to the results of the 2010 elections to the Federal Parliament of Belgium, the largest number of seats won separatist conservative party "New Flemish Alliance» (N-VA), serving for secession of Flanders from Belgium - 27 seats. It is followed by the Francophone Socialist Party (26 seats), a coalition of francophones "reform movement" (18 seats), the party of "Christian Democrats" (17 seats), and the Flemish, "Socialist Party" and "Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats" - 13 seats each. Second Flemish nationalist party, held at the Federal Parliament was the party "Vlaams Belang» (Vlaams Belang), received 12 seats.


It should be noted that the N-VA and the Vlaams Belang, being both separatist parties differ on a number of its software products. "Flemish Interest" is known throughout the world as a far-right party, ten years ago, when the party was called "Vlaams Blok", she was charged by a court in discrimination against immigrants. Today the "Vlaams Belang" - is one of the most famous in the world of right-wing parties, which opposes the Islamization of the region, the influx of immigrants and denouncing multiculturalism. "New Flemish Alliance" - a more moderate right-wing conservative party that does not fight with Islam in general, but only with its radical manifestations. This distinguishes it from the "Flemish Interest", which requires completely stop immigration flows and perceiving Islam as an aggressive and uncompromising faith.


One of the leaders of the extreme right, Philip Dewinter stated that he saw no possibility of cooperation between the two organizations. Yielding a moderate "New Flemish Alliance" on the number of seats in the federal parliament, ultra "Vlaams Belang" leads in the Flemish regional parliament (21 seats to 16 seats out of a total of 124 seats).


Meanwhile, the Walloon nationalists could not even get close to these results. Also does not appear among them serious nationalist movement, uniting all indigenous peoples living in Belgium. "Democratic Front of Francophones", acting for the distribution of the French language, has received only three seats in the federal parliament, where the party was part of the coalition "reform movement." Some progress could be achieved only party in Parliament in Brussels, where she received 11 out of 89 seats. Another party of Francophones - is ultra-right "National Front of Belgium", created a nationalist-Francophones Daniel Feret in 1985 in the wake of the success of the political far right in France. "The National Front of Belgium" is fighting for the unity of the Belgian state and trying to win over, including, and Flemish voters. Belgian National Front did not receive the support and by their counterparts from neighboring France. Last year, the leader of the French "National Front" Marine Le Pen has made a ban for the Belgian FN carry the name. Le Pen made it out of fear of unwanted associations of her party with Belgian far right. After that, yesterday's "National Front" has changed its name to the "National Democratic Party" and performs with slogans against immigration, Islam, and for the unity of Belgium.


In addition to integral nationalism, for the Walloon right also open the way for separatism - an idea supported by Marine Le Pen, has offered the summer of 2011 to join Wallonia to France in the event of the collapse of the Belgian state. The survey revealed that despite the fact that 60% of French people agree with this prospect of integration of the Walloons, only 39% of respondents supported the idea of ​​joining, the others have demonstrated in their responses that seek to maintain a unified Belgium and, in fact, believe that the authorities of the country should not take further demands Flemish regionalization of the country. And if there is no support of the people, there is no more or less important party, which could be of interest in the Walloons separatist government bodies at various levels.


Successful nationalist movement must have a foundation. We are talking about the level of economic development of the region, whose population is electoral base for the nationalists. Thus, the Spanish Catalonia, where the elections are traditionally popular pro-independence nationalists, is the most economically developed region of Spain. Further, it is only in the 70s of the last century in Scotland learn about oil fields, a steep rise of the nationalist movement, as a result, now the Scots are preparing for a referendum on independence. In Italy, the Parliament sitting nationalist party "League of the North." Its requirement which was independent of the rich from the poor to the north of the south. Currently, North Italian nationalists pose a moderate problem, which are reduced to the regionalization and decentralization. One of the main components of the electoral base of the "League" are small businessmen and traders, who do not want to "feed" the economically less developed south.


A similar situation exists with Flanders. Until the mid-twentieth century, French-speaking Wallonia has a leading position in the national economy and due to this region of Belgium was among the industrialized countries, especially in the area of ​​coal mining, the steel industry and railways. While Flanders was predominantly agricultural region, and its ports were the link infrastructure serving the Walloon industry. But when, in 1960, Belgium granted independence to the Congo, the country faced serious economic problems due to the loss of the colony, rich in zinc, copper, uranium, tin, oil, coal, ores, iron, gold and silver, as well as natural rubber and ivory . As a source of raw materials Congo has played a critical role in the development of the country, for example, by the Congolese diamonds, Belgium has become one of the leading centers for diamond and jewelry industry in the country were occupied by more than ten thousand of its inhabitants.


In addition, in terms of the industrial revolution industry Wallonia based on coal mining and metallurgy, was outdated. At the same time, the geographical position of Flanders, with its sea ports (Antwerp, Ghent, Zebryuge, Ostend) attracted foreign investment, which invested in the automotive industry and refineries. The situation has changed radically. Now, Flanders became the engines of economic development of Belgium, came to dominate the economy. Flemish region has become completely self-sufficient Flanders covers all the social costs from its own revenues, as opposed to Wallonia and Brussels, who have to take the funds from the federal budget. Export Flanders not only compares with that of some European sovereign states, but even more than in countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Austria, Greece, Portugal and Spain.


The rise of nationalism in the region is not only the economic growth of separate cultural and ethnic autonomy. International practice shows, successful nationalist parties approved in those countries where the idea was fixed about the role of the nation, or in other words - where there is a nationalist project, aimed at the future and, most importantly, based on the national identity of the people, its real possibilities and real available resources.


In Switzerland, a clear example of this can serve as a "Swiss People's Party", takes a tough anti-immigrant and anti-Islamic stance. Many European ultra act with similar programs, but much of it, at best, achieve one or two seats in the municipal elections of some distant town, while the 'Swiss People's Party "on the results of elections to the National Assembly in 2011, won more votes than any other party of the country (26.6%) received a total of 54 seats in parliament. The secret to the success of the SNP is that the "Swiss People's Party," made a bid for the old tradition of the Swiss, they these people so much more - to a referendum. Switzerland is the first in the world in terms of holding a referendum and, from the mid-nineteenth century, spent more than five hundred plebiscites. The party has adopted this tool of direct democracy, and all of its initiatives to limit immigration or ban the construction of minarets is conducted through this form of national will, stressing the importance of the tradition of referendums. We also know that Switzerland has traditionally taken a position of neutrality, and the Swiss saw themselves residents of the State who is "a special status" and not citizens of "another country" EU. Therefore, calls to "Swiss People's Party" to the non-alignment to the EU resonate in the hearts of the people of this country.


His nationalist project is and at far right in France. The position of the "National Front" of France meets the ambitions of nationalists, who still can not accept the fact that their country has long been the one that at the time of Napoleon. Moreover, the country has the opportunity to at least a partial return to its former greatness and influence in the international arena. France is one of Europe's largest economy, the country's military industrialization, is an old nuclear power, a member of the UN Security Council, one of the key players in the political arena, and Paris still called the cultural capital of the world. In these circumstances, the calls for the release of NF from the yoke of Brussels, anti-American, and at the same time, the pro-Russian foreign policy and are thus promising a national project aimed at the future.